Historical Review

The historical study of the subfamiliy Charipinae began in the 19th Century with the description of Allotria victrix (Westwood, 1833), now included in Alloxysta, and was continued mainly by Hartig (1840, 1841), Thomson (1862, 1877) and Kieffer (1902a, b; 1904 a, b) with the discovery of a high number of species. The earliest catalogue of this group was made by Dalla Torre (1893). The first complete revision and catalogue was made by Dalla Torre and Kieffer (1910), updating the knowledge of global Cynipoidea, with 6 genera of Charipinae were studied (Alloxysta, Pezophycta, Charips, Nephycta, Hemicrisis, Phaenoglyphis), including specific keys. Later, Weld (1952) updated the catalogue of Dalla Torre and Kieffer, publishing a list of 9 genera of Charipinae (Pezophycta, Nephycta, Lytoxysta, Charips, Alloxysta, Glyptoxysta, Hemicrisis, Phaenoglyphis, Charipsella), and giving an illustrated key to genera. Hellén (1963) published the Finnish species, included in three genera (Dilyta, Phaenoglyphis, Alloxysta), with generic and specific keys. Andrews (1978) studied the Nearctic species of the four genera of ‘Alloxystini’ (Lytoxysta, Hemicrisis, Alloxysta, Phaenoglyphis), including a key to genera, and keys for the species of Phaenoglyphis and Alloxysta, with additional data on distribution, morphology and biology of each Nearctic species. Fergusson (1986) revised the English Charipinae, included in four genera (Dilyta, Apocharips, Alloxysta, Phaenoglyphis), providing specific keys and figures. Menke and Evenhuis (1991) revised North American Charipinae included in five genera (Phaenoglyphis, Alloxysta, Lytoxysta, Apocharips, Dilyta), with descriptions of several new species and new combinations; this work also gives a checklist of the species of ‘Alloxystini’ in North America and a world checklist of the ‘Charipini’. During the second half of the 20th century, Evenhuis made a huge work on Charipinae, publishing many works dedicated to the description of new species and the revision of previously described types, establishing many synonyms.


In the last years, many revisions and descriptions of new genera and species from all continents have been done by Pujade-Villar et al. (2002), Paretas-Martínez and Pujade-Villar (2005, 2006, 2007), Pujade-Villar and Paretas-Martínez (2006), Paretas-Martínez et al. (2008, 2009, 2011), Ferrer-Suay et al. (2011a)These works are focused mainly on revisions of genera of Charipinae with few species, like Dilyta or Thoreauana, and in describing new species/genera in regions where the biodiversity of the subfamily was and is poorly known. Thus, as these same authors point out in some of these works, the taxonomy of the most abundant and species rich genera of Charipinae, Alloxysta and Phaenoglyps, is still chaotic and in needed of urgent revision. Recently the taxonomy of these two genera has been addressed (Ferrer-Suay et al., 2011b, c, d; 2012a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h). The type material of each valid species has been revised and their statuses have been established. In addition, material from all the biogeographical regions have been studied resulting in a great deal of new records and new species described.